Quality Rating & Improvement System, QRIS
What Are They and Why Should Early Learning Services Care?
The Growing Emphasis on Quality in Early Learning
As consumers, we check ratings system before choosing a hotel or movie. State QRIS programs provide that same service for parents looking at early learning.
It's part of an effort to raise standards in early learning nationwide. Quality impacts learning outcomes.
And parents are well aware that quality and educational content in early learning varies widely. But grading information is hard to find. They can ask questions, but generally they rely on word of mouth, online reviews and accreditation standards.
What is QRIS?
Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) is a rating or stars system to raise standards and create uniformity state-wide.
QRIS is a national movement, but decisions on how to define quality and implementation is state by state. For instance, the Washington State QRIS is Early Achievers, the New York program is QUALITYstarsNY.
Most states use a star or point system, assessing school quality in these categories:
· curriculum and assessment
· the learning & caregiving environment
· family engagement
· staff qualifications
· administrative practice
The QRIS program is voluntary and levels of participation vary from state to state.
It is frequently administered by a state’s human services or education agency in partnership with universities (who mainly do assessment) and other organizations -- like ChildCare Aware -- which provide training, coaching and support to early learning services.
· improve the quality of early care and education programs
· support parent decision making
· improve children’s development and school readiness
Find a link to the QRIS program in your state here.
The system was first introduced in Oklahoma in 1997 and has evolved dramatically since then. The largest jump in participation occurred in 2013, due in part to the federal Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge grant program requiring QRIS participation as a performance metric.
Currently, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and many US territories are either planning, piloting or implementing a version of QRIS.
QRIS History and Background
QRIS programs in the 1990's sought to improve the generally low quality of existing care. The theory behind the first wave of these systems, in Colorado, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, was that providing parents with a transparent, easy-to-understand rating of child care quality would result in
· more informed choices
· increase demand for quality
· incentive for providers to improve quality
These early adopters focused on “raising the floor” of quality by building on child care licensing standards.
In 2009-10, the federal stimulus funds and the Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge (ELC) grant competition spurred on a second generation of QRIS development. System changes included:
- expanding the QRIS focus beyond child care to include Head Start and pre-K and
- mandating independent observations to determine the quality of the service.
The latter has proved to be the most costly component of a QRIS program.
So how effective are QRIS programs?
It is difficult to say given the wide variability of programs across states. There are different ways that states define quality standards, provide incentives and disseminate information. As a result, no consensus has been reached as to a single best QRIS design strategy.
QRIS HAS ITS DETRACTORS -- QUESTIONS ABOUT OUTCOMES
The research in this area has missed results. One study published in the journal Science “Can Rating Pre-K Programs Predict Student Outcome” looked at 700 preschools over a four year period concluding that quality features that QRIS looked at--teacher qualifications and experience, classroom environment, family activities, and adult-child ratios—did not correlate with improved student learning outcomes.
For a comprehensive list of resources by state checkout the Childcare Aware resources by state here.